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The second couple listened intently to the conversation, interjecting that they hadn’t considered cord blood banking, and they looked toward me. They started asking the other couple, and me, many questions about cord blood banking. What is the cost? How is it done? What are the uses of cord blood? Is it only used to treat the baby later in life? Will cord blood treat myasthenia gravis? And finally, is it worth the time, effort, and money to invest in cord blood banking?
After all is said and done, the cost to collect, test, process and store a donated cord blood collection at a public bank is estimated to be $1,200 to $1,500 dollars for each unit banked. That does not include the expense for the regulatory and quality systems needed to maintain licensure, or the cost of collecting units that are discarded because they don’t meet standards.
So what are your options? You have three choices. One is to store the cord blood with a private company at a cost to you ranging from $1,500 to $2,500 and an annual storage fee in the ballpark of $125. Secondly, you can donate the cord blood to a public bank, if there is one working with your hospital, and your doctor is on board with the idea. There are also public banks that accept mail-in donations, if you register during your second trimester and your doctor is willing to take a short training class on-line. Zero cost to you. The third option is to do nothing and have the cord blood, umbilical cord, and placenta destroyed as medical waste.
For families that choose to bank cord blood, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends public cord blood banking. Estimates vary, but the chances of a child having a stem cell transplant, with either bone marrow or cord blood, are 1 in 217 over a lifetime. Although the AAP states cord blood has been used to treat certain diseases successfully, there isn’t strong evidence to support cord blood banking. If a family does decide on cord blood banking, the AAP recommends public cord blood banking (instead of private) to cut down on costs. If you donate cord blood and your child eventually needs it, you can get it back as long as it hasn’t been discarded or used.
Today, many conditions may be treatable with cord blood as part of a stem cell transplant, including various cancers and blood, immune, and metabolic disorders. Preserving these cells now may provide your family potential treatment options in the future.
Researchers continue to investigate new applications of stem cells. Ballen (2006) reported on studies examining the use of stem cells for treating autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, systemic sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. Gunning (2007) reported on stem cell research for regenerative uses for heart attacks, stroke, spinal cord injury, diabetes, liver injury, and even traumatic brain injury. However, Gunning also noted that these regenerative uses for stem cells are purely in the research stage and, so far, no tangible evidence supports any clinical uses beyond the diseases that are currently being treated.
Private banking is an alternative option if you can afford the associated costs and if the family’s history suggests a higher probability of need. Families that are predisposed to certain diseases, that are ethnically mixed, or that include a family member who may need a stem cell transplant should take special care to understand the value the cells may provide.
Four main types of physical conditions are treated with stem cell transplants: cancers, blood disorders, congenital metabolic disorders, and immunodeficiencies (see Table 1). Examples of cancers that are treated with stem cells are both lymphoma and leukemia. Nonmalignant hemologic disorders also account for a fair share of the recipients of stem cells. Examples of these blood disorders are various types of anemias, such as sickle-cell anemia and Fanconi’s anemia (the first disorder treated with umbilical cord blood stem cells). Stem cells have also been used to treat various metabolic disorders, such as adrenoleukodystrophy. The fourth major category of uses for stem cells is in treating immunodeficiencies, such as Duncan’s disease or adenosine deaminase deficiency (Drew, 2005; Moise, 2005).
Umbilical cord blood was once thought of as a waste product. Now, years after the first successful umbilical cord blood transplant, more families seek information about whether or not to save their newborn’s cord blood. Childbirth educators may be one of the main sources that an expectant family depends on to gain more knowledge about cord blood banking in order to make an informed decision. Preserving umbilical cord blood in public banks is advisable for any family; however, it is recommended that expectant families only consider private cord blood banking when they have a relative with a known disorder that is treatable by stem cell transplants. The childbirth educator is encouraged to be well versed on the topic of cord blood banking, so that as questions from class participants arise, the topic can be explored and addressed appropriately.
Since the first unrelated cord blood–banking program was started at the New York Blood Center in 1991,40 a number of public cord blood–banking programs have been established throughout the world to collect, type, screen for infection, and cryogenically store cord blood for potential transplantation to unrelated and related recipients.41–49 Some of these programs had been funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (National Institutes of Health), the National Marrow Donor Program, the American Red Cross, or academic programs based in not-for-profit organizations. One cord blood program initiated by the National Institutes of Health exists solely for sibling donor collection for families who are likely to consider cord blood transplantation because a first-degree relative has been diagnosed with a disease that is treatable with allogeneic transplantation. In this bank, families own the cord blood, and it is shipped to a designated transplant center in the event a medical decision to proceed with cord blood transplantation is made.50
Umbilical cord blood was once thought of as a waste product of the birthing experience, but now it is valued for its content of stem cells. Today, more than 20 years after the first successful umbilical cord blood stem cell transplant, more families are seeking information about whether or not to invest in saving their newborn’s umbilical cord blood. Saving the cord blood in public banks is a worthy undertaking for any family. It is recommended that expectant families only consider cord blood banking in private banks when they have a relative with a known disorder that is already treatable by stem cell transplants. Moreover, expectant families should not rely on commercial cord blood banks as their sole source of information about cord blood banking.
BioInformant is the first and only market research firm to specialize in the stem cell industry. BioInformant research has been cited by major news outlets that include the Wall Street Journal, Nature Biotechnology, Xconomy, and Vogue Magazine. Serving Fortune 500 leaders that include GE Healthcare, Pfizer, and Goldman Sachs. BioInformant is your global leader in stem cell industry data.
Tracey said she felt lucky since she banked Anthony’s cord blood with a private company. And Osteopetrosis is one of 80 diseases listed by many cord blood companies in their marketing material as treatable with stem cells.
Ravindranath Y, Chang M, Steuber CP, et al. Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) studies of acute myeloid leukemia (AML): a review of four consecutive childhood AML trials conducted between 1981 and 2000. Leukemia.2005;19 :2101– 2116
Takahashi S, Iseki T, Ooi J, et al. Single-institute comparative analysis of unrelated bone marrow transplantation and cord blood transplantation for adult patients with hematologic malignancies. Blood.2004;104 :3813– 3820
So far, the Flower of Sunlight has been tested by a small number of individuals, including some athletes and physically active individuals, different age groups, etc., and they always felt the immediate energy boost and improvements of physiological and mental health. In the group of physically active people, the oil significantly improved their efforts, some of them saying that they didn’t have to try that hard to achieve the same performance as they normally do.
Cade Hildreth is the Founder of BioInformant.com, the world’s largest publisher of stem cell industry news. Cade is a media expert on stem cells, recently interviewed by the Wall Street Journal, Los Angeles Business Journal, Xconomy, and Vogue Magazine.
Therapies with cord blood have gotten more successful. “The outcomes of cord blood transplants have improved over the past 10 years because researchers and clinicians have learned more about dosing cord blood, picking better matches, and giving the patient better supportive care as they go through the transplant,” says Joanne Kurtzberg, M.D., director of the pediatric bone marrow and stem cell transplant program at Duke University.
Some ethical concerns over umbilical cord blood banking warrant mention. As previously stated, the AAP (2007) acknowledges that claims in advertisements for private cord blood banks are not accurate. In fact, some of the statements made by private cord blood banks are outright misleading (Fox et al., 2007), which raises questions about how informed consent for cord blood collection is obtained. Legally, the cord blood belongs to the child, but the consent of the mother alone is usually obtained for collection, and the consent of the father is rarely considered (Ballen, 2006). Because the cord blood now has a “value,” the person who obtains consent and that same person’s professional connection to the private cord blood bank may come into question (Pinch, 2001).
You can also support your local research and academic institutions that are accepting cord blood donations. Stem cell research has become a provocative debate because of the ethical disagreements around embryonic stem cells. UCB avoids the debate entirely while still providing valuable stem cells in the quest to cure disease and mitigate human suffering.
Now when you know what is cord blood, you might be wondering how it is collected. Well, cord blood is collected right after the birth of your little one. The procedure is completely painless and free from risks as well. The procedure is so quick, hassle-free and painless that neither a newborn nor a new mother realizes the entire procedure has taken place. Following is a list of steps depicting how the procedure is actually convened. Read on, to grasp a better insight on cord blood banking and its proceedings.
There are around 20 companies in the United States offering public cord blood banking and 34 companies offering private (or family) cord blood banking. Public cord blood banking is completely free (collecting, testing, processing, and storing), but private cord blood banking costs between $1,400 and $2,300 for collecting, testing, and registering, plus between $95 and $125 per year for storing. Both public and private cord blood banks require moms to be tested for various infections (like hepatitis and HIV).
Current applications for newborn stem cells include treatments for certain cancers and blood, metabolic and immune disorders. Additionally, newborn stem cell preservation has a great potential to benefit the newborn’s immediate family members with stem cell samples preserved in their most pristine state.
3. Families should consider is whether the odds given for the “average baby” apply to them. Some families do have a higher predisposition to cancer and immune disorders and would be far more likely to benefit from cord blood banking than the statistics indicate.
Jaing TH, Hung IJ, Yang CP, Chen SH, Sun CF, Chow R. Rapid and complete donor chimerism after unrelated mismatched cord blood transplantation in 5 children with beta-thalassemia major. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant.2005;11 :349– 353
Rocha V, Wagner JE Jr, Sobocinski KA, et al. Graft-versus-host disease in children who have received a cord-blood or bone marrow transplant from an HLA-identical sibling. Eurocord and International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry Working Committee on Alternative Donor and Stem Cell Sources. N Engl J Med.2000;342 :1846– 1854
Blood naturally starts to clot when its outside the body. An anticoagulant is used to help prevent the cord blood from clotting while it is in transit to the laboratory for processing. CBR deliberately chose to use lyophilized (dry) heparin as the anticoagulant because of some potential advantages, including:
After harvesting, the umbilical cord blood is taken to a cord blood bank where it will be tested to make sure that it is clear of disease and other contaminants. Before being frozen, a cryopreservant is added to the cord blood so that the stem cells are able to be frozen without damaging them, after which they are stored in a liquid nitrogen Cord Blood storage tank at –196 Celsius.
That fetal blood holds all sorts of interesting — and potentially therapeutic — cells and molecules. This realization has, in some cases, changed the way the umbilical cord and placenta are handled during birth. Instead of tossing it aside, some doctors, scientists and parents are choosing to bank this fetal blood — harvesting it from the baby’s umbilical cord and placenta, freezing it and storing it away for later.
Cord tissue use is still in early research stages, and there is no guarantee that treatments using cord tissue will be available in the future. Cord tissue is stored whole. Additional processing prior to use will be required to extract and prepare any of the multiple cell types from cryopreserved cord tissue. Cbr Systems, Inc.’s activities for New York State residents are limited to collection of umbilical cord tissue and long-term storage of umbilical cord–derived stem cells. Cbr Systems, Inc.’s possession of a New York State license for such collection and long-term storage does not indicate approval or endorsement of possible future uses or future suitability of these cells.
Research on stem cell transplants began in the 1950s, with successful bone marrow transplants occurring in the 1970s, often to treat cancer patients whose own bone marrow was destroyed by chemotherapy and radiation. The first successful umbilical cord blood stem cell transplant was reported as occurring in the late 1980s. The recipient was a 6-year-old American boy from North Carolina who was treated for Fanconi’s anemia (a genetic disorder) at Hospital St. Louis in Paris, France, using cord blood obtained from his younger sister’s birth. Interestingly, more than 20 years after the transplant, this young man is alive and well. Not only did he survive long term, but both his immune system and his blood were transformed by the transplant of his sister’s cord blood stem cells. Soon after this first documented cord blood stem cell transplant, the first public umbilical cord blood bank was established in 1991 in New York (McGuckin & Forraz, 2008).
Anak S, Saribeyoglu ET, Bilgen H, et al. Allogeneic versus autologous versus peripheral stem cell transplantation in CR1 pediatric AML patients: a single center experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer.2005;44 :654– 659
Cord Blood Registry® (CBR®) is the world’s largest newborn stem cell company. Founded in 1992, CBR is entrusted by parents with storing samples from more than 600,000 children. CBR is dedicated to advancing the clinical application of cord blood and cord tissue stem cells by partnering with institutions to establish FDA-regulated clinical trials for conditions that have no cure today.
This web page was researched by Frances Verter, PhD, Alexey Bersenev, MD PhD, and Pedro Silva Couto, MSc ©2016-2018. Sources of information about established therapies were publications in the medical literature found via PubMed and Google Scholar. Sources of clinical trials were searches of ClinicalTrials.gov, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR), Japan University hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registry (UMIN-CTR), Japan Medical Association Clinical Trial Registry (JMA-CTR), Clinical Research Information Service from South Korea (CRiS), EU Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT), World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), Netherlands Trial Register (NTR), Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ANZCTR), Clinical Trials Registry-India (CTRI), German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS), and Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT).
ViaCord collaborates with leading research and medical centers across the country to help advance medical treatments using cord blood, discover treatments using cord tissue, and connect families to relevant clinical trials.
Rubinstein P, Dobrila L, Rosenfield RE, et al. Processing and cryopreservation of placental/umbilical cord blood for unrelated bone marrow reconstitution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1995;92 :10119– 10122
To most people, the issue comes down to money. If you had unlimited money, you would spend a few thousand to even miniscually increase the chance of your child enjoying good health. However, since you probably don’t have unlimited money, you will have to decide how to best spend and save for your children’s future. If you invested the Viacord fee of $1550 plus $150 for the courier at your child’s birth in the stock market, you would have $12,210 by the time he turned 21. That would certainly help pay for college or even his medical insurance after he graduated from college. The odds are that your child will need a college education more than an autologous bone marrow transplant. So if you have to choose between one or the other, make the right choice by saving the money for his future.
Cord tissue is rich in another type of stem cell. Although there are no current uses, researchers are excited about the benefits cord tissue stem cells may offer in potential future users, such as regenerative medicine. By storing both, you’ll have potential access to more possibilities